Review Article

Sports Review

International Journal of Research Padagogy and Technology in Education and Movement Sciences

2022 Volume 11 Number 2 APR-JUN

Past and Present Scenario of Basketball in Relation to Olympics

Takotra P.1*

1* Pratibha Takotra, , Directorate of Sports and Physical Education, University of Jammu, Jammu, UT of J&K, India.

Sports and games became a focal point in establishing a strong relationship wherever we lived. It is a familiar and comfortable venue for connection with each other because sport is a complex activity, which become a sort of war on human muscles and mind. We have witnessed a revolution in the wide arena of sports. Basketball is a highly competitive game and it demands high physical qualities. The prime physical qualities are explosive strength, strength endurance, agility, speed, various coordinative abilities, etc. Height without fitness or technical ability without endurance becomes a liability. In all court games, including Basketball, fast starts, sudden stops, and quick change in direction are basic to good performance. Everybody knows that Basketball is a game which requires high degree of movement, and the players should be physically fit to have a control over the game. Basketball was first contested as a medal event at the 1936 olympics. Women’s basketball mean while made its debutat the montreal 1976 games. Start from the origin in 1891 in springfield, Massachusetts the game achieved almost immediate acceptance and popularity. In 1936 it also introduced in Olympics and plays a better version itself. USA dominated basketball olympics. However Indian basketball team scripted history by qualifying summer Olympics in Moscow.

Keywords: Critic, Basketball, Olympics and Performance.

Corresponding Author How to Cite this Article To Browse
Pratibha Takotra, , Directorate of Sports and Physical Education, University of Jammu, Jammu, UT of J&K, India.
Pratibha Takotra, Past and Present Scenario of Basketball in Relation to Olympics. IJEMS. 2022;11(2):24-30.
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Manuscript Received Review Round 1 Review Round 2 Review Round 3 Accepted
2022-04-03 2022-04-03 2022-04-05 2022-04-06 2022-04-07
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© 2022by Pratibha Takotraand Published by The University Academics. This is an Open Access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ unported [CC BY 4.0].



Sports as an integral part of the society have an important and valuable effect on many spheres of human life. Similarly the whole social pattern of a society may be reflected in its sports achievements. Sports, unlike the other activities, are not an end product. It is undertaken essentially for its own sake. If we want to know why people play, the first answer is that they primarily play for fun, enjoyment or satisfaction. The sport is a carrier, which encourages coaching of various sports and games along with rules and regulations governed by them and also it prepares the trainees to take active part in competitive sports. It grows out of man‟s struggle for survival in a hostile world. Sports hold outstanding place in modern life. Millions of people participate in sporting activities, watch and read about them, and spend billions of rupees per annum on sports related activities and equipments. In a game like cricket it is extremely high. Though this enormous interest in sports was noticed many decades ago, almost no consideration was given to actually studying sports except by sports journalists and by a few research scholars. But the influence of sports on modern society has made it clear that sport is a reasonable field of academic study. Sport has grown massively in scope and in social importance, but the meaning of sport has received little in the wan of serious attention (Schultz, Emily A, et al. 2004).

Basketball is a game of skill. It is also a game of athletic ability and movement. To be a good player, is not only to know the game and have good Basketball skills, but also to be extremely agile improving the ability to move quickly around the court and be a better player. The game is all about movement: whether it is driving by a player on offense, sliding to defend a dribbler, or going after a loose ball...increasing the quickness and agility gives an edge over the competition. Basketball is a game of movement. It is also a game of stops-andstarts. Think about a typical trip down the court as an offensive player: sprint to the offensive end of the floor, hustle 10 or 12 feet across the court to set a screen, roll to the Basket, make a quick move to get open to catch a pass, pass and screen away, cut to the Basket for a potential offensive rebound. It is all about footwork, movement, mobility. The defensive end of the floor requires equal (or even greater mobility and agility).

Basketball is an athletic game involving its participants in a range of demanding motor skills. These skills vary in kind from, being able to run quickly with precision and good timing on a small, sometimes congested, court area, to, the fine hand eye coordination skills of catching and dribbling, or, shooting, or, passing what appears to be quite a large Basketball. It also assumes that the players understand and incorporate a set of rules and are prepared not only to be played by them, but to co-operate with others (including their teammates) in order to achieve the aims associated with the game. Basketball, above all is a game about decision making, which implies that its players need to be able to apply their skills in the quickly changing and very variable environment that is the essence of the activity. Basketball players move with a great speed over a limited space. It is one of the most vigorous games and requires a great variety of athletic traits. In the game of Basketball all the movements are involved like passing, throwing, changing the direction quickly, and sudden stop, jumping for rebound, feinting, maneuvering the opponent while going for offensive move and guarding the opponents in the defensive.

The history of basketball began with its invention in 1891 in springfield, Massachusetts by CanadianPhysical education in structure James Naismith as a less injury-prone sport than football. Naismith was a31-year old graduate student when he created the indoor sport to keep athlites indoors during thewinters.The game achieved almost immediate acceptance and popularity, and the first collegiate game,with five players on each team was played on each team was played in 1896 in lowa city, USA.

Everybody knows that Basketball is a game which requires high degree of movement, and the players should be physically fit to have a control over the game. Most of us like to be professional Basketball player, but drop the idea when are thinks about fitness which is required for playing the game. Basketball develops physical fitness, as many sports do, but the intense, fast-paced action of a typical Basketball game simultaneously develops speed, hand-eye coordination and cardiovascular endurance. Moving quickly back and forth across the court develops lower-body fitness, while shooting, defending and passing upper-body fitness is also developed. Court games are unique in the sense that they are played in a relatively

small area and involve the handling of a ball or similar object and often an implement. It requires a high degree of running, maneuverability and total body agility in order to gain good court position and compete with one‟s opponent on both offensive and defensive maneuvers. Fast starting, stopping, dodging, darting and acceleration are the fundamental requirements to a good court play. Since court games often involve conditions bouts of play at a vigorous rate, a high level of anaerobic endurance and also good jumping ability is of great importance (Jenson, 1995).

Olympic Scenario

The key is not the will to win. Everybody has that It is the will to prepare to win that is important. Basketball was introduced in the olympic programme at the 1904 games in St Louisana demonstration event. Basketball was first contested as a medal event at the 1936 olympics. Women’s basketball meanwhile made its debut at the montreal 1976 games. 3×3 basketball made its olympic debut at Tokyo 2020. Most olympic gold medals–UnitedStates of America Having invented the sport in the late 1800, it was no surprise that the USA dominated basketball once it was included as a medal event at the 1956olympics. The soviets had made their presence felt at the continental stage by winning the biennial European Basketball Championships 10 times from 1951 to 1971 and the FIBA world championships in 1972.


Olympics GoldMedal SilverMedal
Berlin           1936 USA Canada
London        1948 USA France
Helsinki        1952 USA SovietUnion
Melbourne     1956 USA SovietUnion
Rome            1960 USA SovietUnion
Tokyo            1964 USA SovietUnion
Mexico          1968 USA SovietUnion
Munich         1972 SovietUnion USA
Montreal       1976 USA Yugoslavia
Moscow        1980 Yugoslavia Italy
LosAngeles    1984 USA Spain
Seoul             1988 SovietUnion Yugoslavia
Barcelona      1992 USA Croatia
Atlanta          1996 USA Yugoslavia
Sydney          2000 USA France
Athens          2004 Argentina Italy
Beijing          2008 USA Spain
London         2012 USA Spain
Rio               2016 USA Serbia
Tokyo           2020 USA France

Women’s Basketball at the Olympics ‘‘Dream as if live as if you’ll live forever, Live as if you'll die today''– By Lebron James.

The USA is the most successful team in women’s Olympic basketball with eight titles.

Making its debut at the 1976 games in Montreal, women’s basketball has been a constant presence at the olympics ever since. The Soviet Union was the first to claim the Olympic title in women category  by beating the united States in the final at the 1976 games and retained their Crown at their home games in 1950. The Amercians, however returned to regain their crown at Atlanta 1996 and have won the titleateveryeditionsince.


Olympics GoldMedal SilverMedal
Montreal        1976 Soviet Medal USA
Moscow        1980 Soviet Medal Bulgaria
LosAngeles    1984 USA SouthKorea
Seoul             1988 USA Yugoslavia
Barcelona      1992 UnifiedTeam China
Atlanta          1996 USA Brazil
Sydney          2000 USA Australia
Athens          2004 USA Australia
Beijing          2008 USA Australia
London        2012 USA France
Rio               2016 USA Spain
Tokyo           2020 USA Japan


Position of India

It might not be as popular as cricket, football or hockey, but basketball has found a place in India's sporting ecosystem.

Heading into its first – ever Olympics at Moscow 1980, the Indianbasketball team - led by Paramjit Singh.

Basketball has ceased to make a significant mark in India compared to other popular sports in the country, (by Imtiaz Azad) India has been one of the weaker teams at the Asian levelt oo.

However, almost four decades ago, indianmen’s basketball team scripted history by qualifying for the 1980 summer olympics in Moscow The Indian team led by captain Paramjit Singh embraced the opportunity with superlative enthusiasm.

The Indian team was placed in (group A) alongside the Soviet Union, Brazil and Czechoslovakia. Their maiden appearance was against the home team,which thumpeda121-65 win against India.

India faced Czechoslovakia in the second game who tumed out to be tougher and more merciless than the host.The Czechoslovakians clinched as elobrate 183-65w in.

In their third group stage match India was again outclassed by Brazil. They ended their group stage matches succumbling a massive 137 – 64 defeat. India tried to find a foot in the classification round games, where they couldn’t show much resilience. After losing six consecutive matches, india faced Australia for the 11th Or 12th place match. The match ended in favour of the Aussies with a score line of 93-75. India finished their Olympic run at 12 place Though lack lustre performance marred the olympics, it was still the only competitive high-fort in Indian hoops.

Basketball is one of the most intricate and fast-paced games in sports. From a coaching stand point, it takes a trained eye and years of experience to understand exactly what is going on at any given time during a game. The coach, who is a manager of players as well as game strategy, is required to make many decisions that might affect the outcome of a game. One of the most critical decisions all coaches must make is to determine the amount of playing time for each player because this decision most directly influences a team’s performance. To determine playing time for players, the coach needs to evaluate individual performance in practice and under game conditions. This evaluation process is a task that is normally based on the coach’s knowledge, experience and ability to accurately measure individual performance under game conditions. Many attempts have been made to evaluate basketball skills in an attempt to project game performance. But it is obvious that a player will not perform the same in a practice or scrimmage as he will in a game.

Science has revolutionized the life of the modern man. The facilities what we see these days in modern life are the results of scientific innovations and inventions. In order to give the best possible performance in any of

the competition, the assistance of scientific disciplines is sought. Study of basic scientific principles of physical education as sports has become the subject of pure research. New techniques have emerged based on insight and understanding of the sports researchers. After the revival of the modern Olympics, astounding performance was witnessed in every competitive sport because of scientific approach and new techniques.

During a game many occurrences stand out as distinctive features, ranging from controversial decisions given by officials to exceptional technical achievements by individual players. While these are easily remembered, they tend to distort the coach’s assessment of the total game. Most of the remembered features of a game are those that can be associated with highlighted features of the play.

Development of Basketball:World

James Naismith was teaching physical education at the Young Men's Christian Association Training College in Springfield, Massachusetts, and felt discouraged because calisthenics and gymnastics did not engage his students. The need was an indoor wintertime game that combined recreation and competition. He worked out the fundamentals of a game that would quickly catch on. Two peach half-bushel baskets gave the name to the brand new sport in late 1891. Naismith, born in northern Ontario in 1861, gave up the ministry to preach clean living through sport. He described Duck on the Rock, a game from his Canadian childhood, the creative reasoning behind his basket game, the eventual refinement of rules and development of equipment, the spread of amateur and professional teams throughout the world, and the growth of women's basketball (at first banned to male spectators because the players wore bloomers). Naismith lived long enough to see basketball included in the Olympics in 1936. Luther H. Gulick10 organized a vigorous recreation suitable for indoor winter play. The game involved elements of American football, soccer, and hockey, and the first ball used was a soccer ball. Teams had nine players, and the goals were wooden peach baskets affixed to the walls. By 1897-1898, teams of five became standard. The game rapidly spread nationwide and to Canada and other parts of the world, played by both women and men; it also became a popular informal

outdoor game. U.S. servicemen during the World War II (1939-1945) popularized the sport in many other countries. A number of U.S. colleges adopted the game between 1893 and 1895. In 1934 the first college games were staged in New York City's Madison Square Garden, and college basketball began to attract heightened interest. By 1950’s basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball.

The first pro league, the national basketball league, was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. This league only lasted five years before disbanding; its demise spawned a number of loosely organized leagues throughout the north-eastern United States. One of the first and greatest pro teams was the Original Celtics, organized about 1915 in New York City. They played as many as 150 games a season and dominated basketball until 1936. The Harlem Globetrotters, founded in 1927, a notable exhibition team, specializes in amusing court antics and expert ball handling. In 1949 two subsequent professional leagues, the National Basketball League (formed in 1937) and the Basketball Association of America (1946) merged to create the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Boston Celtics, led by their center Bill Russell, dominated the NBA from the late 1950’s through the 1960’s. By the 1960’s, pro teams from coast to coast played before crowds of many millions annually. Wilt Chamberlain, a center for the Los Angeles Lakers, was another leading player during the era, and his battles with Russell were eagerly anticipated. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, also a center, came to prominence during the 1970’s. Jabbar perfected his famed "sky hook" shot while playing for the Los Angeles Lakers and dominated the opposition.

The NBA suffered a drop in popularity during the late 1970’s, but was resuscitated, principally through the growing popularity of its most prominent players. Larry Bird of the Boston Celtics and Magic Johnson of the Los Angeles Lakers are credited with injecting excitement into the league in the 1980’s through their superior skills and decade-long rivalry. During the late 1980’s Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls rose to stardom and helped the Bulls dominate the NBA during the early 1990’s. A new generation of basketball stars, including Shaquille O'Neal of the Orlando Magic and Larry Johnson of the Charlotte Hornets, have sustained the NBA's growth in popularity.

Development of Basketball:India

The game of basketball started its journey in India during the first half of the twentieth century and is considered as one of the widely played sports in India. Basketball in India is played in most of the high schools, colleges and universities and especially the younger generation like to play this game. India is one those first few countries in the history of Basketball that adopted the game, within a few years of its inception. This is actually a ball game where two teams consisting of five players each, play against each other. This fast-paced game requires a great quality of fitness and athleticism on behalf of the players. Basketball is played on a court with standard dimensions. The teams can earn points only by shooting a round inflated ball through a raised metal hoop and net at the opponent’s end of the court. The term ‘basketball’ actually refers to the large round ball and the basket, used in this game.. The game of basketball in India is played both men and women of all ages and ability. According to the basic rules of basketball, the basketball is played in a court which is usually a rectangular one with regulation rims located 10 feet above the ground. The court is generally located on the playground or in a gymnasium. The game was being played with a soccer ball during the early days of its inception. However, in the modern days, standard basketballs are of orange to brown in colour and have an outer cover of leather or nylon. In a basketball match, both the teams play offensively and defensively at the same time and their main objective is to throw the ball into opponent’s basket. The referee throws the ball in air at the beginning of the match and the game begins with the jump of the ball. Both the teams try to grab the ball and control it right from that moment. Passing, ball handling, shooting, and rebounding are among the basic attacking skills of basketball. Among the defensive skills, there is guarding the opponents, blocking and positioning to defend own basket, intercept or steal the ball from the opponents very quickly and also rebounding the missed shots. As basketball is primarily an indoor sport and played in a relatively small playing area or ‘court’, it is highly suitable for the spectators who are viewing. As there are only ten players in a game and they use a large ball that is easy to follow, the spectators like the game, very much. There are a large number of terms of basketball that help the spectator and also the players to understand

the game, in a better way. The match officials and players make good use of these terms to play a fair and standard match. Being one of the earliest countries to adopt basketball, India has so far produced numerous talented Basketball players, who have earned recognition and reputation in the international arena. The Indian basketball players have also won several trophies for their country. There are several basketball players in India, who have been honoured by the Government of India through the prestigious Arjuna award. Hence, the number of Arjuna awardees in basketball is quite huge. Basketball in India is mainly being run and managed by a large number of national and state level associations, spread all over India. The Indian basketball associations are  working with a common view of spreading the game in all parts of the country. Apart from that, developing the overall condition of the game and bringing up new talents from the grass route level are also some of the other principal objectives of the Indian basketball associations.


"Every thing negative or a pressure or a challenges is an-opportunity for me to rise".–Kobe Bryant.

Basketball is not just a sport, it is a lifestyle. Winning and loosing is a part of game butcome back with more enthusiasm that differentiate you from others.Now a days India has been one of the weakest team at the asian level but it was also the time when Indian team is known for their performance. In forth coming time, the performance of Indian team also reaches height.

Start from the origin in 1891 in springfield, Massachusetts the game achieved almost immediate acceptance and popularity. In 1936 it also introduced in Olympics and plays a better version itself. USA dominated basketball olympics. However Indian basketball team scripted history by qualifying summer olympics in Moscow. After that period the performance of Indian Basketball team started diminishing to much extent. Extra and United effort is required to progress and win.


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