• DR.NEHARICA SUBHASH university of jammu
Keywords: Tribe, Seasonal migration, Marginalized, Schedule Tribes,Gujjars, Bakarwal


The paper focus on the decline in seasonal migration as the communities now feel marginalized as their social as well as economic life is harsher and difficult. The ‘Bakarwal’ community is one of the twelve tribal communities that are officially recognized in Jammu and Kashmir with the assistance of various amendments. Both ‘Gujjar’ and ‘Bakarwal’ communities together form the third largest population group in the state. According to the Census of India (2011), the total population of the Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Jammu and Kashmir accounts for 11.9 per cent of its total population, out of which Gujjars are the highest in number followed by Bakarwal Tribe. It has long been a tradition among both Gujjars and Bakarwal Tribe to migrate to the highland pastures along with their livestock in summers and migrate back to the lowlands in winters. This tradition of seasonal migration has consistently been maintained by their generations together. This is why they are known as ‘Nomads’ and their movement is called ‘Transhumance’. However, both Gujjars and Bakarwal Tribe have continuously been migrating, but this tradition has declined among them (declined more among Gujjars than Bakarwal Tribe).


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Perception of respondents regarding Alternatives for Seasonal Migration
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